AskDefine | Define leverage

Dictionary Definition

leverage

Noun

1 the mechanical advantage gained by being in a position to use a lever [syn: purchase]
2 strategic advantage; power to act effectively; "relatively small groups can sometimes exert immense political leverage"
3 investing with borrowed money as a way to amplify potential gains (at the risk of greater losses) [syn: leveraging]

Verb

1 supplement with leverage; "leverage the money that is already available"
2 provide with leverage; "We need to leverage this company"

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Pronunciation

Noun

  1. A force compounded by means of a lever rotating around a pivot; see torque.
    A crowbar uses leverage to pry nails out of wood.
  2. By extension, any influence which is compounded or used to gain an advantage.
    Try using competitors’ prices for leverage in the negotiation.
  3. The use of borrowed funds with a contractually determined return to increase the ability of a business to invest and earn an expected higher return, but usually at high risk.
    Leverage is great until something goes wrong with your investments and you still have to pay your debts.
  4. The ability to earn very high returns when operating at high capacity utilization of a facility.
    Their variable-cost-reducing investments have dramatically increased their leverage.

Translations

force compounded by means of a lever rotating around a pivot
any influence which is compounded or used to gain an advantage
  • Dutch: voordeel, invloed
  • Finnish: vaikutusvalta
  • Spanish: influencia
Translations to be checked

Verb

  1. To use; to gain advantage; to take full advantage of an existing thing.
    They plan to leverage the publicity they gained.

Usage notes

Use as a verb is still predominantly a buzzword, primarily among American English speakers.

Translations

take full advantage of an existing thing

Extensive Definition

In physics, a lever (from French lever, "to raise", c.f. a levant) is a rigid object that is used with an appropriate fulcrum or pivot point to multiply the mechanical force that can be applied to another object. This is also termed mechanical advantage, and is one example of the principle of moments. A lever is one of the six simple machines.

Theory of operation

The principle of leverage can be derived using Newton's laws of motion, and modern statics. It is important to note that the amount of work done is given by force times distance. For instance, to use a lever to lift a certain unit of weight with a force of half a unit, the distance from the fulcrum of the spot where force is applied must be twice the distance between the weight and the fulcrum. For example, to cut in half the force required to lift a weight resting 1 meter from the fulcrum, we would need to apply force 2 meters from the other side of the fulcrum. The amount of work done is always the same and independent of the dimensions of the lever (in an ideal lever). The lever only allows to trade force for distance.
Archimedes was the first to explain the principle of the lever, stating:
"(equal) weights at equal distances are in equilibrium, and equal weights at unequal distances are not in equilibrium but incline towards the weight which is at the greater distance." Archimedes once famously remarked: "Πα βω και χαριστιωνι ταν γαν κινησω πασαν." ("Give me a place to stand and with a lever I will move the whole world.")
The point where you apply the force is called the effort. The effect of applying this force is called the load. The load arm and the effort arm are the names given to the distances from the fulcrum to the load and effort, respectively. Using these definitions, the Law of the Lever is:
Load arm X load force = effort arm X effort force. When 2 things are balanced, when a 1 gram feather for instance is balanced by a one kilogram rock on a lever the feather would go up and the rock would go down, but if a 1 kilogram rock was balanced by a 1 kilogram rock, the lever would be in the middle.

The three classes of levers

There are three classes of levers which represent variations in the location of the fulcrum and the input and output forces.

First-class levers

A first-class lever is a lever in which the fulcrum is located between the input effort and the output load. In operation, a force is applied (by pulling or pushing) to a section of the bar, which causes the lever to swing about the fulcrum, overcoming the resistance force on the opposite side. The fulcrum may be at the center point of the lever as in a seesaw or at any point between the input and output. This supports the effort arm and the load.
Examples:
  1. Beam engine although here the aim is just to change the direction in which the applied force acts, since the fulcrum is normally in the centre of the beam (i.e. D1 = D2)
  2. Bicycle hand brakes
  3. Can opener and bottle opener
  4. Crowbar (curved end)
  5. Curb bit
  6. Hammer, when pulling a nail with the hammer's claw
  7. Hand trucks are L-shaped but work on the same principle, with the axis as a fulcrum
  8. Oars
  9. Pliers (double lever)
  10. Scissors (double lever)
  11. Seesaw (also known as a teeter-totter)
  12. Shoehorn
  13. Spud bar (moving heavy objects)
  14. Trebuchet, an upside down example of the above picture
  15. Wheel and axle because the wheel's motions follows the fulcrum, load arm, and effort arm principle

Second-class levers

In a second class lever the input effort is located at one end of the bar and the fulcrum is located at the other end of the bar, opposite to the input, with the output load at a point between these two forces. Examples:
  1. Dental elevator
  2. Door
  3. Nutcracker
  4. Paddle
  5. Springboard (diving board)
  6. Wheelbarrow
  7. Wrench
  8. Diving Board
  9. Crowbar (flat end)

Third-class levers

For this class of levers, the input effort is higher than the output load, which is different from second-class levers and some first-class levers. However, the distance moved by the resistance (load) is greater than the distance moved by the effort. Since this motion occurs in the same length of time, the resistance necessarily moves faster than the effort. Thus, a third-class lever still has its uses in making certain tasks easier to do. In third class levers, effort is applied between the output load on one end and the fulcrum on the opposite end. Examples:
  1. Arm
  2. Baseball bat
  3. Boat paddle
  4. Broom
  5. Chopsticks
  6. Door
  7. Fishing rod
  8. Hockey stick
  9. Tongs
  10. Tweezers
  11. Mandible
  12. Mousetrap
  13. Nail clippers, the main body handle exerts the incoming force
  14. Shovel (the action of picking or lifting up sand or dirt)
  15. Sling
  16. Tools, such as a hoe or scythe
  17. Stapler

Mnemonic

A mnemonic for remembering the three classes of levers is the word flex, where the letters f-l-e represent the fulcrum, the load, and the effort as being between the other two, in the first-class lever, the second-class lever, and the third-class lever respectively. (To relate the mnemonic to the above diagrams, note that: the "fulcrum" is represented by the triangle, the "effort" is denoted by the arrow with a hand symbol, and the "load" is the other arrow.) To remember what the different classes of levers look like, another mnemonic is "fre 123" In a 1st class lever the fulcrum is in the middle, 2nd class the resistance is in the middle, and 3rd class the effort is in the middle of it. Alternatively, the term 'Frogs lay eggs' can also be used in the similar manner. Some people remember the word 'elf', which sorts the classes from the third to first. Another way is "FREE Lever" Which means Fulcrum + Resistance + Effort Equals Lever.

External links

leverage in Arabic: رافعة
leverage in Asturian: Lleva
leverage in Bulgarian: Лост
leverage in Catalan: Palanca
leverage in Czech: Páka
leverage in Danish: Vægtstang
leverage in German: Hebelgesetz
leverage in German: Hebel_%28Maschine%29
leverage in Spanish: Palanca
leverage in Esperanto: Levilo
leverage in Persian: اهرم
leverage in French: Levier (mécanique)
leverage in Korean: 지레
leverage in Hindi: उत्तोलक
leverage in Indonesian: Tuas
leverage in Icelandic: Vogarstöng
leverage in Italian: Leva (fisica)
leverage in Latin: Vectis
leverage in Lithuanian: Svertas
leverage in Lojban: vraga
leverage in Hungarian: Emelő
leverage in Dutch: Hefboom
leverage in Japanese: てこ
leverage in Norwegian: Vektstang
leverage in Polish: Dźwignia
leverage in Portuguese: Alavanca
leverage in Russian: Рычаг
leverage in Simple English: Lever
leverage in Slovak: Páka
leverage in Slovenian: Vzvod
leverage in Serbo-Croatian: Poluga
leverage in Finnish: Vipu
leverage in Swedish: Hävstång
leverage in Telugu: తులాదండము
leverage in Thai: คาน (กลศาสตร์)
leverage in Turkish: Kaldıraç
leverage in Ukrainian: Важіль
leverage in Walloon: Djîsse (levî)
leverage in Contenese: 槓桿
leverage in Chinese: 杠杆

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

aeromechanics, animal mechanics, ascendancy, authority, biomechanics, celestial mechanics, charisma, charm, clout, consequence, control, credit, dominance, domination, effect, electromechanics, eminence, enchantment, esteem, favor, fluid mechanics, force, good feeling, hold, hydromechanics, importance, incidental power, influence, influentiality, insinuation, leadership, magnetism, mastery, mechanical arts, mechanics, moment, personality, persuasion, potency, power, predominance, preponderance, pressure, prestige, purchase, quantum mechanics, rational mechanics, reign, repute, rule, say, servomechanics, statistical mechanics, suasion, subtle influence, suggestion, supremacy, sway, upper hand, wave mechanics, weight, whip hand, zoomechanics
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